By Stephen F Walker
An creation to animal studying because it has been studied in smooth experimental psychology, with an old creation to the nature/nurture arguement in either animal and human psycholgy. contains dialogue of habituation, classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning, perceptual and discrimination studying, and reminiscence and cognition within the context of animal behaviour.
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First released in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa corporation.
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Additional info for Animal Learning: An Introduction (Introductions to Modern Psychology)
Most generally, if conditioning is thought of in terms of the signalling or predictive function of the conditioned stimulus (CS) , then disruption of the signalling relationship between the metronome and food ought to be indexed by salivary measurements. In terms of • the telephone switchboard analogy, a temporary connection should now become unplugged. But neither of these interpretations was used by 62 Pavlov: instead, the cessation of salivation when a stimulus was no longer followed by food was attributed to a neural process of inhibition, which is assumed to have suppressive effects on response output, without changing the neural connection formed when the conditioned reflex was established.
This is called perceptual learning, or exposure learning (Hall, 1980; Bateson, 42 1973). Over shorter time intervals something similar may be called ‘within-event learning’ (Rescorla and Durlach, 1981), or ‘latent learning’ (Tolman, 1948). The point, perhaps, is that the biological function of sense organs and the perceptual apparatus of the nervous system is not to enable animals to become indifferent to events thereby perceived, it is to acquire useful information about the outside world. Habituation is in one sense a secondary phenomenon, in that it represents a lessening of response to consistent stimulation; making the appropriate response to a novel stimulus in the first place, and storing representations Of familiar perceptions, are an at least equally important aspect of exposure to stimuli.
Search for additional physical or social stimulation as an apparent end in itself merges with the specialized subject of play (Smith, 1986) which is most common in the young of co- operative mammalian species including carnivores and primates. In all these cases species-specific patterns of behaviour are dominant, but over and above these the most plausible generalization is that of Berlyne (1960) that an internal level of arousal, correlated with stimulus novelty, is responsible for some of the motivational impetus of play and exploration.