By David G. Andrews
A quantitative advent to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This version has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now contains a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in prior chapters, giving the scholar a huge realizing of a few of the actual recommendations underlying this most crucial and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are built mostly within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The e-book is an important source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics
32 Atmospheric thermodynamics than ET . Lorenz showed how the state of minimum total potential energy (or reference state) can be calculated, assuming an adiabatic redistribution of the atmospheric mass. A crucial part of Lorenz’s calculation was to note that, given an adiabatic redistribution of mass, the mass of air above any given surface of constant potential temperature θ (an isentropic surface or isentrope) will not change. This is because, in an adiabatic process, each small mass element of air must retain its potential temperature and must therefore remain on a given isentropic surface.
Show that an atmosphere of uniform potential temperature must have a ﬁnite depth. Calculate this depth for an Earth-like atmosphere with θ = 300 K. 5, but comparing the potential temperature of a parcel with that of the surrounding air, show directly that the air is statically stable if dθ/dz > 0. 6 Derive an expression for the speciﬁc heat capacity cp for air with a water vapour mass mixing ratio of μ. (Use the fact that cp = (∂H/∂T)p , where H is the enthalpy per unit mass; cf. 02. 5 K km−1 and T = 270 K.
35) of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation applies to each of these transitions. 38); indeed, since the two latent heats are fairly similar in size, the two curves are quite close. 37 The saturated adiabatic lapse rate Fig. 8 The phase transitions between ice, liquid water and water vapour. The triple point is indicated by the small solid circle. 4 × 105 hPa K−1 near the triple point. However, the form of the ice–water transition curve is very different: here δV is small and negative, since Vl is slightly less than Vi , but the latent heat of fusion is positive and non-negligible.