By A. Shanker, et al.,
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Extra resources for Abiotic Stress Response in Plants - Phys., Biochem, Genetic Persps
It is abundantly clear, that histidine kinases have important roles during the regulation of salt and osmotic stress responses in addition to their roles in hormone signalling and they are probably very early elements in the perception machinery. However, their precise biochemical roles have yet to be clarified. Histidine kinases are not the only candidates for sensors for osmotic and ionic stress. , 2001). Receptor-transporters in E. , 2001). , 2002). , 2006). , 2002). , 2009). , 2011). SOS2 is regulated through interaction with the Ca2+-sensing protein SALT-OVERLY-SENSITIVE 3 (SOS3).
The diversity of abiotic stresses implies that there should be a strong specific component in the individual stress responses (Jaspers & Kangasjärvi, 2010). However, there is a striking common component in the general response to all abiotic stresses (Vaahtera & Brosché, 2011). Essentially all abiotic stresses lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) albeit different forms and in different subcellular compartments (Jaspers & Kangasjärvi, 2010). , 2007). , 2008; Munns & Tester, 2008; Vaahtera & Brosché, 2011; Zhu, 2002).
LONG HYPOCOTYLS 5 (HY5) is a bHLH transcription factor, acting downstream of light signalling cascades induced by activation of photoreceptors. , 2007a). Activity of HY5 is mediated by protein phosphorylation and degradation, where COP1 plays an important role. , 2007). , 2007). Belonging to another class of blue light photoreceptors, PHOT1 and PHOT2 have a minor role in blue light dependent photomorphogenesis compared to CRYs. However, PHOT1 and PHOT2 play a key role in blue light-dependent chloroplast movement, which serves as a rapid response to different light regimes (Celaya & Liscum, 2005; Demarsy & Fankhauser, 2009).