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By Jonathan Fox

This publication delves into the level of presidency involvement in faith (GIR) among 1990 and 2002 utilizing either quantitative and qualitative method. The research is predicated at the faith and country dataset (RAS), which include one hundred seventy five governments around the globe, all of that are addressed separately during this booklet. The types of GIR tested during this research contain no matter if the govt. has an reputable faith, even if a few religions are given preferential remedy, spiritual discrimination opposed to minority faith, govt rules of the bulk faith, and non secular laws. The examine exhibits that GIR is ubiquitous, that GIR elevated considerably in this interval, and that just a minority of states, together with a minority of democracies, have separation of faith and nation. those findings contradict the predictions of religion's lowered public value present in modernization and secularization concept. The findings additionally reveal that kingdom non secular monopolies are associated with lowered spiritual participation.

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Norris & Ingelhart (2004). Religion’s Role in Politics and Society 31 Thus some aspects of religion in some places are secularizing but other aspects of religion in other places are becoming more powerful and influential. As is the case with religion itself, the literature on the role of religion in modern society and politics is multifaceted. There are a multitude of opinions and perspectives on the topic which are not fully reconcilable with each other. Yet it can be said that over the past 25 to 30 years there has been considerable change in the social science scholarship on religion.

17 In all, identity-based religion variables can produce interesting results but are subject to a major shortcoming – the results based on them can show difference but not causality. For example, these studies often show religiousidentity conflicts to be different from other conflicts but cannot show that these differences are because of religious factors. That religion is a cause of these findings is inferred, not proven. While this can be said of any correlation based on the adage that correlation does not necessarily mean causation, religious identity is a general categorization that can overlap with several political, social, cultural, racial, and economic factors.

Some measure whether individuals, groups, or states belonging to one religious tradition are somehow different from those belonging to another 1 This chapter is an updated and expanded version of Fox & Sandler (2003). 32 Quantifying Religion 33 religious tradition. A number of such studies compare Islam to other religions. 2 Many studies that compare religious traditions focus on conflict. 3 Another examines differential levels of conflict participation and violence in domestic conflict between 1945 and 2001.

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