By Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli
Procedural languages are in general good understood and their formal foundations solid within the different types of a number of lambda-calculi. For object-oriented languages but the scenario isn't as simple. during this ebook the authors suggest and advance a distinct method through constructing item calculi during which items are handled as primitives. utilizing item calculi, the authors may be able to clarify either the semantics of items and their typing principles and show how one can increase all the most vital recommendations of object-oriented programming languages: self, dynamic dispatch, periods, inheritance, safe and personal equipment, prototyping, subtyping, covariance and contravariance, and process specialization. Many researchers and graduate scholars will locate this a big improvement of the underpinnings of object-oriented programming.
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Extra info for A theory of Objects
Therefore considerable attention has been devoted to separating them. The separation of subclassing from subtyping is becoming commonplace; other separations are more tentative. In this chapter we examine various possible distinctions. 1 Object Types In the original formulation of classes (in Simula, for example), the type description of objects is intermixed with the implementation of methods. This situation conflicts with the now widely recognized advantages of keeping specifications separate from implementations, particularly to enable separate code development within large teams of programmers.
However, Self is then regarded as a subtype of InstanceTypeOfic'). Thus Self, as the result type of a method, is automatically specialized on subclassing. There are no drawbacks to extending classical class-based languages with Self in covariant positions, for example as the result type of methods. This extension increases expressive power and prevents loss of type information at no cost other than properly keeping track of the type of self. We can even allow Self as the type of fields; this is sound as long as those fields are updated only with self or updated versions of self.
2 Prototypes and Clones As we have just seen, procedures may be used for generating objects. However, it may be difficult or inconvenient to anticipate all the possible ways in which objects should be parameterized. The so-called prototype-based languages adopt a different approach to object generation. Instead of parameterizing objects beforehand, they generate stock objects from prototypical objects, and customize the stock objects later [32, 79). In class-based languages, object descriptions provide the templates from which object instances are generated.